Abstract 1, Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2016

Confronting Gender Imbalance in High School History

Textbooks Through the C3 Framework

Kay A. Chick

Penn State Altoona

Stacey Corle

Penn State Altoona


This study analyzed gender balance in the texts and illustrations of three recently published, high school US history textbooks and one alternate volume of American history.  In all of the American history texts analyzed there were significantly more males than females in text content and illustrations.  These textbooks focused on the contributions of those famous Americans who have been a part of the historical record.  The record is skewed with regard to gender, leaving teachers and students with the arduous task of acknowledging the absence of women while attempting to fill in the gaps through their own research and resources. Standards committees and textbook publishers should change their focus and teachers and students should confront gender imbalance by integrating high quality women’s history resources into the classroom with web-based resources, family and community history projects, young adult literature, history textbook analysis, and the vision of the C3 Framework.

Key words: gender equity, history, textbooks, women’s history, inquiry, C3 Framework

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